Man's environment constitutes mainly water, land and air, which are precious for sustaining human life as well as the sources for their food, livelihood, employment and recreation.
However, Pakistan like many other developing countries has been experiencing serious environmental degradation in the form of polluted surface water and groundwater, sewage contamination, soil and groundwater salinity, water logging and air pollution, particularly in urban areas of the country.
As a result in most parts of the country, drinking water quality is very poor due to unprotected surface water bodies, which are highly polluted by industrial, agricultural and sewage wastes. Whereas, groundwater is either highly saline or polluted due to elevated concentrations of dissolved salts, toxic natural elements like arsenic, fluoride and metals (lead, zinc etc.) Further, sewage contamination due to unlined sanitation mostly in rural areas of the country, where unsewered sanitation among other anthropogenic factors trigger arsenic and fluoride leaching from the sediments into aquifers, which causing groundwater pollution and resulting in chronic diseases among childern and adults in Pakistan and other developing countries.